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You are here: Conferences & Events * 2009 Stockholm * Abstracts * 1. Toward a sustainable value chain

1. Toward a sustainable value chain

1.07. Visualization of Large Font Databases

Martin Solli, Reiner Lenz

We describe a novel system for interaction with large font databases. The system is an efficient tool for browsing in large font databases and as such it can be used by people in the Graphic Arts industry. The proposed approach is based on shape descriptors developed for visual characterization of character images rendered from different fonts. Here the descriptors are used in a visualization of a large font database containing more than 2700 fonts. By applying geometry preserving linear- and non-linear manifold learning methods, in combination with a refinement process, character images of different fonts are organized on a two-dimensional grid, where fonts are positioned based on visual similarity.

Keywords: Font selection, Visualization, Dimensionality reduction, Image analysis
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1.08. A product semantic study of the influence of touch and vision on the evaluation of different paper grades

Siv Lindberg, Annika Kihlstedt

There is a growing awareness in marketing today of the importance of sensory information in the evaluation of products. Functional attributes and product benefits are no longer enough in order to attract and commit the consumers. In the paper industry this translates to explore in which way the consumer perceives added value and how smelling, hearing, seeing, tasting or touching can enhance the interaction with printed products. The objective of present study was to create an inventory of the haptic and visual sensory impressions for different paper grades. Unimodal tactile and visual exploration of LWC, MWC, SC, copy paper, newsprint and book paper was performed. Paper grades were rated on seven point semantic scales consisting of the attributes Elegant, Exciting, Masculine, Modern, Feminine, Smooth, Brittle, Ecological, Warm and Cheap. The results show that for the five attributes Feminine, Modern, Cheap, Elegant and Exciting there are no significant differences in ratings between the tactile and visual condition, i.e. the perceptual differences between paper grades are stable over the two different senses. For Ecological, Brittle, Smooth, and Warm there are statistical differences between the senses for some paper grades. In particular the SC paper looks more ecological than it feels. Copy paper and newsprint feel smoother than they look. Paper nuances were measured instrumentally using an X-rite and correlated to the psychological measurements. The b* values are had a significant impact on attributes such as: Warm (0.97), Ecological (0.79), and Modern (-0.79). The lightness values of the samples, L* correlated to Feminine (0.63) and to Elegant (0.61), and negatively to Ecological (-0.72 and Brittle (-0.67).

Keywords: Paper quality, Tactile perception, Visual perception
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1.09. Perception and measurement of the whiteness of papers with different gloss and FWA amount

Ludovic Gustafsson Coppel

The effect of mean gloss level on perceived whiteness was evaluated by magnitude estimation and pair wise comparison of papers with varying shades and gloss levels. The samples were printed on substrates of different gloss to target L*a*b* values measured under a light booth illumination having a 5000 K correlated colour temperature. Observers were able to rate the whiteness of the samples with large mean gloss differences in the 5000 K illumination and in the same illumination with an additional UV lamp. The CIE whiteness equation predicted well the perceived whiteness in both illuminations and the mean gloss level had no significant effect on perceived whiteness. This means that the CIE whiteness equation can be used to compare the perceived whiteness of papers having very different mean gloss levels. However, due to the different amount of fluorescent whiteness agents (FWA) in the papers, the perceived whiteness prediction was only valid when the measurement was performed under the same illumination as for the visual evaluations. Typical indoor illumination with florescent light tubes contains much less UV than the D50 or C illuminants. The instrumental whiteness differences due to mean gloss and instrument geometry were negligible compared to the effect of the UV content of the illumination.

Keywords: Whiteness, Gloss, Perception, Fluorescence
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